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Main outcomes

Student should be able to:

  • Explain the structural basis of nanoscience.
  • Classify nanomaterials.
  • Identify journals and other sources of information on nanomaterials.
  • Discuss applications of nanomaterials in chemistry, physics and nanomedicine and the basis of such applications.

Summary

Introduction: what is nanoscience? History, nature and development of nanoscience. Properties of nanomaterials. Types of nanomaterials – nanotubes, nanorod, nanoparticles, etc. Different fields of nanoscience. Interdisciplinary aspects.

Practical matters: Sources of information and nanoscience literature. Principles and techniques of nanoscience – analytical approaches, synthetic approaches, research methodology, experimental protocols.

Applications to nanoscience: devices and nanotechnology, South African landscape, current devices and possibilities.

Mathematics for nanoscience: modelling and computation.

Nanoscience and society: Ethics, safety, toxicology, regulation and standards. This will include environmental protection, public awareness, government policy and monitoring, networks.

Fundamentals of bionanotechnology: physiological, cellular, biological properties of nanobiosystems; nanoscience and systems for in-vivo and in-vitro procedures.

Nanomedicine: Techniques for nanomedicines which will include drug delivery systems, medical devices, regenerative medicine, biosensors and diagnostic systems; biological, physical and chemical characterization of nanosystems; in-vitro and in-vivo applications of nanobiosensor devices.

Main outcomes

Student should be able to:

  • Explain entrepreneurial process and its components.
  • Explain the fundamental concepts, characteristics and criteria for successful small business development and entrepreneurial process.
  • Discuss fundamental principles and procedures of successful project management.
  • Discuss the requirements for managing new product development and innovation ventures.

Summary

Entrepreneurship
Business concepts and models: services, innovative products and business growth.
Recognizing, assessing and testing opportunity.
The entrepreneurial management process.
Identification, protection and management of Intellectual property.
Patents.

Small Business Management
Principles and fundamental concepts of small business development and management; including pricing, credit, personal selling, advertising, sales promotion and product marketing and human resources management.
Small business and e-commerce: planning, financing, marketing plan, operational plan and factors affecting the growth of small business.

Project management
Project characteristics.
Project life cycle: initiation, planning, execution and closeout.
Managing new product development.
Principles of project management: application of knowledge; standards and regulations; understanding the project environment; management skills; interpersonal skills; influence; leadership; motivation; negotiation; and problem solving skills.
Managing innovation.
Networks for projects.

Main outcomes

The purpose is to provide students with courses in fundamental nano-biomedical sciences. It consists of two major topics: Fundamentals of bionanotechnology and the study of nanomedicine

Summary

This module includes an in depth study of:
I. Fundamentals of bionanotechnology
Nanoparticles (NP)
Synthesis, assembling and encapsulation of NP; isolation/ purification and characterization of NP

Biomedical applications of nanomaterial devices
Diagnostics (colorimetric,fluorometric,biosensors, surface Plasmon resonance), Therapeutics, Imaging

Physiological response to nanomaterials
Systematic and cellular immunological responses to different nanomaterials

Development and linking the biological component to the nanomaterials

II. Nanomedicine
Disease
Molecular origin of diseases, complexity of diseases (primary vs secondary manifestations), Disease diagnostics based on molecular changes

Using nanomaterials for diagnostics

Main outcomes

A student should be able to:

  • Perform experiments on the most recent developments in cloning, protein expression, purification, identification and quantification.
  • Discuss the principles and applications of immunoassays.
  • Perform experiments on flow cytometry: from basic concepts to multicolour analysis.
  • Discuss the basic principles of PCR amplification, quantification and latest development in molecular biology
  • Perform experiments and analyse results on the most recent developments in different imaging techniques
  • Discuss the principles and relative merits of a range of techniques for the production of nanostructures including mono- and multilayers and encapsulation techniques
  • Explain the principles and relevance of nanoparticle bio-junction.
    After attending the course be able to identify the proper analysis tool for a particular problem.

Summary

The purpose of the course is to provide students with live demonstrations on research equipment used for nanoresearch. It consists of theoretical and practical exposure to:

Theoretical background and practical exposure to the most recent developments in protein expression, purification, identification and quantification; different imaging techniques; molecular biology, genomics; immunoassays.

Main outcomes

Student should be able to:

  • Describe the interacting forces between molecules in a biological system.
  • Describe the basic structure and function of each macromolecule.
  • Describe the components of the cell, metabolic reactions of organelles such as respiration, interaction of molecules and transport mechanisms
  • Describe the principles of the basic assays used in the biological sciences

Summary

Biological chemistry: Bonds, acids and bases, chemical reactions, enzymes
Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Cells and house-keeping functions: Cell structure and metabolic processes

Main outcomes

The student should be able to:

  • Discuss the synthesis and characterisation techniques suitable for producing organic and inorganic nanomaterials.
  • Use simple models (e.g. particles in a box, tight binding, molecular orbitals) to describe the electronic structure of molecular and solid state nanosystems.
  • Use simple models and examples to describe how the electronic structure of nanosystems is influenced by electron-electron interactions (charge, spin) and coupling to the vibrations.
  • Explain electronic conduction through nanosystems and identify different regimes (Ballistic, Coulomb Blockade etc)

Summary

Advanced Nanochemistry Synthesis

(i) Synthetic methods: Electrosynthesis, chemical, thermal and microwave synthesis. Thin Film Deposition Methods. Physical synthetic methods including carbon arc discharge, laser ablation, thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD), catalytic synthesis and plasma synthesis.

(ii) Properties of nanomaterials: Chemical, electrochemical, spectroscopic, microscopic, mechanical, electrical and optical properties of materials

(iii) Synthetic nanomaterials: Ceramics, glasses, polymers, fullerenes, nanotubes, graphenes, carbon nanotubes, metal oxides and catalysts (PGMs etc), nanocrystals, nanocomposites, nano-alloys, quantum dots, zeolites, MOFs and dendrimers.

Group Theory for Chemists

Symmetry groups, vibrational analysis, orbital Analysis and molecular spectroscopy.

Advanced Characterisation Techniques

(i) Spectroscopy, FTIR, Raman, liquid and SS-NMR, UV – VIS, XPS, XRD, XRF.

(ii) Microscopy: TEM, SEM, AFM.

(iii) Physical Techniques: Hall Effect, TGA, BET, Contact Angle, fluorescence, etc.

(iv) Electroanalysis and electrochemical technology: Voltammetry, scanning electrochemical microscopy,
electrochemiluminescence, spectroelectrochemistry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Applications of nanomaterials

(i) Energy Devices (Fuel cells, ion batteries, Catalysis Supercapacitors, Photovoltaic cells).

(ii) Health (Sensors and biosensors; biomaterials; drug delivery; food preservation, spoilage and contaminants).

(iii) Catalysis (Reaction dynamics; adsorption isotherms, thermodynamics; homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis)

(iii) Environmental Analysis (Mining and minerals; water and pollution)

(iv) Beneficiation (Materials and manufacturing; chemical processes).

Pre-requisite modules

Honours Analytical Chemistry
Honours Physical Chemistry

Main outcomes

At the end of the course student should be able to:

  • Synthesise, characterise and apply nanomaterials in sensor technology, development of biomaterials, drug delivery and in food preservation and food quality determination.
  • Use advanced characterisation techniques and instruments to study nanomaterials.

Summary

Chemical, electrochemical or physical synthesis of specific nanomaterials and catalysts and their characterization for applications in energy devices, sensors and catalysis. The practicals should involve the use of spectroscopic ( FTIR, Raman, liquid and SS-NMR, UV – VIS, XPS, XRD, XRF), microscopic (TEM, SEM, AFM) and physical techniques (Hall Effect, TGA, BET, Contact Angle, fluorescence, etc) in the analysis of nanomaterials.

Pre-requisite modules

Honours Analytical Chemistry or
Applied Chemistry

Main outcomes

Student should be able to:

  • Classify organic and inorganic nanomaterials and identify their various structural aggregations.
  • Explain the structural, bonding, physical and chemical properties of classes of nanomaterials.
  • Discuss the use of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in structure and property elucidation.

Summary

Nanomaterials: ceramics, glasses, polymers, fullerenes, graphene, carbon nanotubes, polymeric and inorganic nanostructures, metal oxides, nano-powders, nanocomposites, nano-alloys and quantum dots.

Structural properties in nanochemistry: chemical crystallography (introduction to bonding, crystal structures and properties), reactivities of nanostructured materials, physical and chemical properties, processing nanostructured materials.

Structural tools in nanochemistry: spectroscopy (FTIR, NMR, UV-Vis), microscopy (TEM, SEM, AFM) and physical methods (XRD, XPS, Auger).

Main outcomes

Student should be able to:

  • Explain basic physical phenomena on the nanoscale, basic principles, uses and limitations of a wide variety of materials, theory of characterisation techniques applicable to the elucidation of the structure, chemistry and properties of nanostructured materials.
  • Identify the pertinent parameters amenable to characterisation, governing a general description of nanostructured materials and devices.
  • Discuss the principles and relative merits of a range of techniques for the production of nanostructures including ultra-thin films and multilayers.
  • Discuss the standard application of spectroscopic, microscopic and chemical characterization tools in literature, and after attending the course the student should be able to identify the proper analysis tool for a particular problem.

Summary

The purpose is to provide students with information about fundamental nanophysics with regard to the study of the phenomena and concepts induced by the extreme smallness of size structures. It consists of two major topics: fundamental nanophysics and nanoscientific methodologies. This module includes an in depth study of:

      • Quantum mechanics
        • The fundamentals of nanophysics
        • The quantum nature and construction of atoms, molecules and nanoparticles
      • Structural properties in nanophysics
        • Crystallography of nanostructured materials, physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles and interfaces, processing of nanostructured materials.
      • Nanomaterials for nanoscience and nanotechnology
        • Different nanomaterials (ceramics, semiconductors, glasses, polymers,fullerenes, graphene, carbon nanotubes, polymeric and inorganic nanostructures, metal oxides, nano-powders, nanocomposites, nano-alloys and quantum dots).
      • Synthesis, nano-structures and nano-devices
      • Nano-analytical characterisation methods (theory)

Analysis tools in nanophysics: spectroscopy (FTIR, UV-Vis, Raman), structural and analytical (TEM, EDS, EELS, SEM, WDS

Pre-requisite modules

Theoretical materials science
Applied materials science
Advanced analytical techniques

Main outcomes

A student should be able to:

  • Discuss the basic principles, uses and limitations of a wide variety of characterisation techniques applicable to the elucidation of the structure and properties of nanostructured materials.
  • Identify the pertinent parameters, amenable to characterisation, governing a general description of nanostructured materials and devices.
  • Explain the principles and relative merits of a range of techniques for the production of nanostructures including ultra-thin films and multilayers.
  • Describe the standard application of spectroscopic, microscopic and physical characterisation tools in practice.

After attending the course be able to identify the proper analysis tool for a particular problem.

Summary

The purpose of the course is to provide students with live demonstrations on research equipment used for nanoresearch. It consists of theoretical and practical exposure to:

  • Advanced high level synthesis
  • Advanced high level analytical techniques
  • Nano-analytical characterisation methods (experimental)
    • Analysis tools in nanophysics: spectroscopy (FTIR, UV-Vis, Raman), structural and analytical (TEM, EDS, EELS, SEM, WDS, EBSD, AFM, STM, XRD, XPS, Auger).

Pre-requisite modules

Theoretical materials science
Applied materials science
Advanced analytical techniques